Angola – 18 years at peace

  • Largo da Independência em Luanda
  • Caminhos de ferro de Benguela
  • Sapatador em acção
  • Afonso Nunes
  • Forças Armadas Angolanas (FAA)
  • Caminho de Ferro de Luanda
  • General Hospital of Luanda
  • Hospital Psiquiatrico de Luanda
  • Reunião dos lideres das bancadas parlamentares
Luanda – The attainment of peace, on 4 April 2002, following a deal between the Government and UNITA, constitutes one of the country’s most remarkable moments in 45 years.

 

This important step, that followed the death of the historical leader of the main opposition party, Jonas Savimbi, facilitated the process of national reconciliation and the establishment of a Democratic and Law-abiding country, despite the big challenges still prevailing.

The attainment of peace , after 27 years of a bloody war, that devastated the country and killed thousands of Angolans on the battle fronts, fields, villages and cities, was the most expressive moment of long lasting negotiations between the Government and UNITA.

It was, thus, the end of a historical process and of a war among brothers, which started in 1975, following the departure of the Portuguese colonisers, with grave repercussions still experienced today in a hard way in the life of most national citizens.

In order for peace to be attained, the country went through hard periods of negotiations that resulted in cease-fire pacts, among which the Gbadolite Agreement, that followed several meetings/summits between the parties, from 25 April and 22 June 1989.

Also signed were the Bicesse Peace Agreement (31 May 1991), Lusaka (20 November 1994), Lucusse, Moxico (2002) and complementary deals to the Lusaka pact, signed in Luanda (4 de Abril de 2002), that brought an end to an era of uncertainty among Angolans.

Speaking to Angop, members of the country’s political elite, said the end of the conflict, along with the approval of the Constitution of the Republic and the Penal Code, are among the major gains in the 45 years of sovereignty.

 

"The major gain is the self-determination of the peoples, the supreme good for any people, followed by the peace, attained 18 years ago", said the head of the ruling MPLA party Parliament Group, Américo Cuononoca.

 

Speaking about the conquests and challenges facing the country in the 45 years of Independence, the MP deplored the period of war the country experienced that held back the economic development and destroyed various social and economic infrastructures.

For him, with the achievement of the national independence and later the peace, Angolans regained their cultural personality and their national identity.

 

"People can, now, speak their national languages, which were underrated and marginalised in the colonial era,” he stated, stressing that, currently, the Angolan Government is busy with a personnel training programme.

In the legislative sphere, he highlighted the 2010 Constitution and the approval of a new Penal Code, adjusted to the country’s new reality. "Today, we have an Angolan Penal Code is being reviewed in Parliament, now adjusted to our reality, idiosyncrasy and cultural identity".

In the economic sphere, he said the country has taken steps, but the economic crisis resulting from the fall in the crude oil prices on the world market have been a big "enemy” to the country.

 

"We are dependent on oil, main export product and, in the last 14 years, the crude oil price on the international market has lowered considerably, which has been causing some economic imbalances ", he said.

To him, the country’s challenges include promoting the economic and social development.

"Any Government’s ultimate purpose is the satisfaction of the pressing needs of its people and it is exactly this the Executive is engaged in ", he stressed.

 

UNITA points out gains and setbacks  

For his part, UNITA’s MP, Maurílio Luyele, said the national Independence was a great conquest for the Angolan people, but deplores the fact that it “occurred with divisions and aggravated fractures that led to the war".

 

In his opinion, the country’s economy has reversed, as there continues to be "social fractures and sharp social inequalities”, despite existing political and military stability.

For the main opposition UNITA member, the conquest of peace is a great gain, but, after almost 20 years, the situation of the country and of Angolans should be better.

 

On the other hand, Maurílio Luyele said the approval of the 2010 Constitution represents a significant achievement for the country, “despite existing aspects that need to be improved, like the model of election of the President of the Republic”.

As challenges, he mentioned the deepening of democracy, the State reform, the institutionalisation of the local power, the pluralism of ideas, the freedom of expression and press in an effective way.

To him, there are the premises that will favour the necessary economic reforms for the country to move smoothly towards sustainable development.

 

PRS considers peace decisive

In his turn, the leader of the opposition Social Renewal Party (PRS), Benedito Daniel, said the attainment of peace was decisive for Angolans to build a promising future.

However, he stated that such promising future has been postponed, “given the deterioration of the social situation and of the country’s economic fabric noted in the last few years”.

 

"We have had a portentous country, with much wealth and with possibility to increase the production of gold, but, unfortunately, we have not had due leaders, " he stated.

 

He also spoke of the need for the country to make a big effort to get affirmed in the economic sphere, investing greatly in the diversification of the economy and national production increase.

 

In the legislative domain, the PRS leader said the country has made a significant progress, as fundamental laws have been approved, like the Constitution of 2010 and a new Penal Code.    

 "It was hard to work with a Penal Code very much unsuitable to our reality ", he said, stressing that the substitution of the Portuguese Penal Code was an enormous gain.

 

"From now on, we hope not to have innocent people being condemned, as the basis of our new legal instrument so states,” said the politician.

For PRS, the big challenges facing the country involve the implementation of the local power and diversification of the economies, as the establishment of the autarchies would lead to progress.

 While admitting a significant increase in agricultural production in the country, the PRS leader regrets the lack of a transforming industry and roads to channel the products from the rural area into the urban centres.

He recommended that a large scale agricultural production should serve to set up transforming industries, to the benefit of the country.

 

The war did not honour Angolans - FNLA 

In his turn, the leader of the opposition FNLA party, Lucas Ngonda, said that, had the independence not run into the war, the country would be more developed economically. 

He recalled that before independence , Angola was one of the Portuguese colonies that already many infrastructures, like factories, roads and bridges that should serve as a basis for the new Nation, but, with the war, they got destroyed throughout the country.

With the attainment of peace, in 2002, the politician said, the country entered a phase of triumph, but, unfortunately, there was an elite that got unlawfully rich.

In this regard, he praised the effort being made by the President of the Republic, João Lourenço, to recover the State’s asset currently in the hands of private individuals.

In the legislative domain, Lucas Ngonda highlighted the Multiparty Confeerence of 1992, convened by former President

 José Eduardo dos Santos, for the establishment of a Democratic and Lawful State.

He recalled that, since then , a constitutional Law was voted, placing Angola as a democratic an law-abiding State.

Among the challenges facing the country, the FNLA leader said the battle for the country’s economic independence must be placed at the top of the agenda.

" Covid-19 has showed that, depending economically, socially and even political on other powers does not help the survival of a Nation,” stressed the politician.

According to him, the effort being made in order for the country to gain a viable agriculture, a robust national business sector and industries to manufacture the goods from the rural area should receive the backing of the citizens and of the international community alike.

He also mentioned the need for the establishment of the local power, stressing that “otherwise we will have an incomplete democracy that will not fully accomplish its mission.”

Civil Societ highlights pacification and reconstruction

If, on one side, the political elite points out independence and peace as two major gains in the last 45 years, the civil society considers that, in addition to that, peace , reconciliation and the reconstruction of social and economic infrastructures should also be highlighted.

Speaking to ANGOP, church officials and academics consider that, despite the economic and financial crisis, the country has, in the last 18 years, scored significant progresses.

Among the gains obtained with the advent of the independence and lasting peace, highlight goes to the freedom of thinking and expression, the implementation of free education and health, the construction of school and health infrastructures around the country.

 

The bishop of the “Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo no Mundo” (Tocoista) church, Afonso Nunes, Angola has achieved affirmation in the context of the nations, as an independent and sovereign countries and has also expanded its line of action.

 

Afonso Nunes underlined that, with the achievement of lasting peace and the silence of the arms in the country, the citizens witnessed the rise of the dream of hope , with the opening of the roads that enabled the free flow of people and goods and, as a result, the construction of infrastructures.

In the course of the 18 years of peace, he added, despite persisting challenges, the State has managed to expand infrastructures in various domains, and the education and training opportunities, including the implementation of farming projects.

 

In his turn, bishop Manuel Inocêncio de Sousa stated that with the attainment of independence and peace, Angolans gained action on the international political arena, with a strong intervention in conflict resolution in the Great Lakes region.

Other challenges faced by the country, according to them,, includes the tightening of the fight against corruption and mismanagement of public assets, recalling that Angola has the potential to provide the citizens with the best living standards.

 

This important step, that followed the death of the historical leader of the main opposition party, Jonas Savimbi, facilitated the process of national reconciliation and the establishment of a Democratic and Law-abiding country, despite the big challenges still prevailing.

The attainment of peace , after 27 years of a bloody war, that devastated the country and killed thousands of Angolans on the battle fronts, fields, villages and cities, was the most expressive moment of long lasting negotiations between the Government and UNITA.

It was, thus, the end of a historical process and of a war among brothers, which started in 1975, following the departure of the Portuguese colonisers, with grave repercussions still experienced today in a hard way in the life of most national citizens.

In order for peace to be attained, the country went through hard periods of negotiations that resulted in cease-fire pacts, among which the Gbadolite Agreement, that followed several meetings/summits between the parties, from 25 April and 22 June 1989.

Also signed were the Bicesse Peace Agreement (31 May 1991), Lusaka (20 November 1994), Lucusse, Moxico (2002) and complementary deals to the Lusaka pact, signed in Luanda (4 de Abril de 2002), that brought an end to an era of uncertainty among Angolans.

Speaking to Angop, members of the country’s political elite, said the end of the conflict, along with the approval of the Constitution of the Republic and the Penal Code, are among the major gains in the 45 years of sovereignty.

 

"The major gain is the self-determination of the peoples, the supreme good for any people, followed by the peace, attained 18 years ago", said the head of the ruling MPLA party Parliament Group, Américo Cuononoca.

 

Speaking about the conquests and challenges facing the country in the 45 years of Independence, the MP deplored the period of war the country experienced that held back the economic development and destroyed various social and economic infrastructures.

For him, with the achievement of the national independence and later the peace, Angolans regained their cultural personality and their national identity.

 

"People can, now, speak their national languages, which were underrated and marginalised in the colonial era,” he stated, stressing that, currently, the Angolan Government is busy with a personnel training programme.

In the legislative sphere, he highlighted the 2010 Constitution and the approval of a new Penal Code, adjusted to the country’s new reality. "Today, we have an Angolan Penal Code is being reviewed in Parliament, now adjusted to our reality, idiosyncrasy and cultural identity".

In the economic sphere, he said the country has taken steps, but the economic crisis resulting from the fall in the crude oil prices on the world market have been a big "enemy” to the country.

 

"We are dependent on oil, main export product and, in the last 14 years, the crude oil price on the international market has lowered considerably, which has been causing some economic imbalances ", he said.

To him, the country’s challenges include promoting the economic and social development.

"Any Government’s ultimate purpose is the satisfaction of the pressing needs of its people and it is exactly this the Executive is engaged in ", he stressed.

 

UNITA points out gains and setbacks  

For his part, UNITA’s MP, Maurílio Luyele, said the national Independence was a great conquest for the Angolan people, but deplores the fact that it “occurred with divisions and aggravated fractures that led to the war".

 

In his opinion, the country’s economy has reversed, as there continues to be "social fractures and sharp social inequalities”, despite existing political and military stability.

For the main opposition UNITA member, the conquest of peace is a great gain, but, after almost 20 years, the situation of the country and of Angolans should be better.

 

On the other hand, Maurílio Luyele said the approval of the 2010 Constitution represents a significant achievement for the country, “despite existing aspects that need to be improved, like the model of election of the President of the Republic”.

As challenges, he mentioned the deepening of democracy, the State reform, the institutionalisation of the local power, the pluralism of ideas, the freedom of expression and press in an effective way.

To him, there are the premises that will favour the necessary economic reforms for the country to move smoothly towards sustainable development.

 

PRS considers peace decisive

In his turn, the leader of the opposition Social Renewal Party (PRS), Benedito Daniel, said the attainment of peace was decisive for Angolans to build a promising future.

However, he stated that such promising future has been postponed, “given the deterioration of the social situation and of the country’s economic fabric noted in the last few years”.

 

"We have had a portentous country, with much wealth and with possibility to increase the production of gold, but, unfortunately, we have not had due leaders, " he stated.

 

He also spoke of the need for the country to make a big effort to get affirmed in the economic sphere, investing greatly in the diversification of the economy and national production increase.

 

In the legislative domain, the PRS leader said the country has made a significant progress, as fundamental laws have been approved, like the Constitution of 2010 and a new Penal Code.    

 "It was hard to work with a Penal Code very much unsuitable to our reality ", he said, stressing that the substitution of the Portuguese Penal Code was an enormous gain.

 

"From now on, we hope not to have innocent people being condemned, as the basis of our new legal instrument so states,” said the politician.

For PRS, the big challenges facing the country involve the implementation of the local power and diversification of the economies, as the establishment of the autarchies would lead to progress.

 While admitting a significant increase in agricultural production in the country, the PRS leader regrets the lack of a transforming industry and roads to channel the products from the rural area into the urban centres.

He recommended that a large scale agricultural production should serve to set up transforming industries, to the benefit of the country.

 

The war did not honour Angolans - FNLA 

In his turn, the leader of the opposition FNLA party, Lucas Ngonda, said that, had the independence not run into the war, the country would be more developed economically. 

He recalled that before independence , Angola was one of the Portuguese colonies that already many infrastructures, like factories, roads and bridges that should serve as a basis for the new Nation, but, with the war, they got destroyed throughout the country.

With the attainment of peace, in 2002, the politician said, the country entered a phase of triumph, but, unfortunately, there was an elite that got unlawfully rich.

In this regard, he praised the effort being made by the President of the Republic, João Lourenço, to recover the State’s asset currently in the hands of private individuals.

In the legislative domain, Lucas Ngonda highlighted the Multiparty Confeerence of 1992, convened by former President

 José Eduardo dos Santos, for the establishment of a Democratic and Lawful State.

He recalled that, since then , a constitutional Law was voted, placing Angola as a democratic an law-abiding State.

Among the challenges facing the country, the FNLA leader said the battle for the country’s economic independence must be placed at the top of the agenda.

" Covid-19 has showed that, depending economically, socially and even political on other powers does not help the survival of a Nation,” stressed the politician.

According to him, the effort being made in order for the country to gain a viable agriculture, a robust national business sector and industries to manufacture the goods from the rural area should receive the backing of the citizens and of the international community alike.

He also mentioned the need for the establishment of the local power, stressing that “otherwise we will have an incomplete democracy that will not fully accomplish its mission.”

Civil Societ highlights pacification and reconstruction

If, on one side, the political elite points out independence and peace as two major gains in the last 45 years, the civil society considers that, in addition to that, peace , reconciliation and the reconstruction of social and economic infrastructures should also be highlighted.

Speaking to ANGOP, church officials and academics consider that, despite the economic and financial crisis, the country has, in the last 18 years, scored significant progresses.

Among the gains obtained with the advent of the independence and lasting peace, highlight goes to the freedom of thinking and expression, the implementation of free education and health, the construction of school and health infrastructures around the country.

 

The bishop of the “Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo no Mundo” (Tocoista) church, Afonso Nunes, Angola has achieved affirmation in the context of the nations, as an independent and sovereign countries and has also expanded its line of action.

 

Afonso Nunes underlined that, with the achievement of lasting peace and the silence of the arms in the country, the citizens witnessed the rise of the dream of hope , with the opening of the roads that enabled the free flow of people and goods and, as a result, the construction of infrastructures.

In the course of the 18 years of peace, he added, despite persisting challenges, the State has managed to expand infrastructures in various domains, and the education and training opportunities, including the implementation of farming projects.

 

In his turn, bishop Manuel Inocêncio de Sousa stated that with the attainment of independence and peace, Angolans gained action on the international political arena, with a strong intervention in conflict resolution in the Great Lakes region.

Other challenges faced by the country, according to them,, includes the tightening of the fight against corruption and mismanagement of public assets, recalling that Angola has the potential to provide the citizens with the best living standards.